I’m a big believer that words matter. Words are powerful and, despite that “sticks and stones” rubbish, words can certainly hurt us. Therefore, when talking about “behavior management,” by the way, I continue to put quotes around it in an effort to communicate that, while those words sometimes provoke a common understanding for educational professionals and parents, “behavior management” does not effectively articulate the charge teachers have in developing classroom communities.
Behavior is communication.
Maybe we should call behavior management courses behavior communication courses instead. Children are communicating with us through their behavior. They are telling us they are tired, disengaged, distracted, hungry, sad, so excited they may burst, worried, scared, confused, overwhelmed, frustrated, and more. Kids, like adults, experience the full range of human emotions and the full range of human coping mechanisms for those emotions.
What if we moved from managing behaviors to listening?
A basic tenet of “behavior management” is identifying the function of the behavior. This is actually trickier than it sounds. We often make assumptions that the function of the behavior is that the child is “lazy” so avoids her work, or the child is “manipulative,” “defiant,” or “hyperactive.” Once we put those frames on a child, they are difficult/impossible to shake off. Children pick up on these labels too. They often internalize them and then take on the identify of being that “difficult” or “hyper” child. It also puts the responsibility of classroom engagement and “behaving” on the learner rather than on the teacher. Remember, it is the teacher’s job to gain the cooperation of her learners.
Kids really do not wake up in the morning thinking they want to ruin your day. They don’t. I know it’s tempting to believe some do. But even they don’t. We have to move away from expecting kids to come to school ready to learn and start enticing them to learn, motivating them to learn, engaging them to learn, incentivizing them to learn. We have to understand that some children come to school hungry or lacking sleep, and that we have to figure out ways to meet these needs. YES! We know and acknowledge that teachers have tough jobs (FYI: Parent blaming/shaming is not allowed – we also must believe all parents are doing the best they can with their current reality. Remember, there are things you do not know). When we put the responsibility “to behave” on the learner, we set them up to fail. When we listen to their communication and meet their needs appropriately, we free them up to focus on learning.
Importantly, though, kids do not typically show the behaviors we want to see for someone they don’t like or trust – or from someone they know doesn’t like them. By listening to what the child is communicating with their behavior, we are able to more meaningfully determine the function of the behavior, and even more importantly, more meaningfully replace it. The purpose of managing behavior should ultimately be to extinguish the unwanted behavior by replacing it with a preferred way of meeting the same need.
Let’s take a common example. Teacher is providing whole group instruction. Kai is talking to his seat mate. Teacher moves closer to Kai and he stops talking. Kai goes to sharpen his pencil, teacher asks him to sit. Kai asks to go to the bathroom. Kai gets a tissue. Kai rummages through his desk. Kai is “off task.” If the teacher clips Kai down on the behavior chart, takes five minutes of his recess (why do we restrict kids movement as punishment? That’s control, pure and simple – it is NOT teaching), or moves him to an “island” (a desk in the corner of the room away from peers), the teacher is not giving Kai any strategies for next time he is feeling restless during whole group instruction.
So what is Kai’s behavior communicating?
We generally separate behavioral communication into two big categories of escape and attention. Kai appears to be communicating a need to escape from the task at hand. We don’t know WHY he needs to escape but we won’t understand why by clipping him down or restricting his freedom. What if we listened to his communication and gave him a break? What if we said, “Hey, Kai, do you need to take a break so you can come back ready to learn?” Maybe we even have some acceptable brain/body breaks already identified that he can self select when he feels himself becoming restless. What if we replaced his disruptive behavior with an acceptable option that still meets his need to move?
Would that be managing behavior? What are you currently doing in your classroom to understand the function of behavior?
Jen Newton, PhD is an assistant professor in early childhood/early childhood special education (isn’t that a lot of words for what should be one field??). I talk a lot and have strong opinions – or so I am told.